This is reduced carbon, present as kerogen admixed in various proportions with derivative now solid bitumen s. Oil generation and migration were active geological processes during Early Earth history. Numerous possible source rocks for oil generation, including the carbon seams themselves, occur within the Witwatersrand basin. In the Witwatersrand ore, oil-bearing fluid inclusions are also present, derived like the bitumen, by thermal maturation of the kerogen. The presence of kerogen and bitumen in the Witwatersrand sedimentary rocks, together with a wealth of observations on the spatial distribution of the carbon seams confirm that the carbon originated in situ from living organisms in microbial mat cover, as opposed to flowing in from elsewhere as liquid hydrocarbons as some researchers have suggested. Paleochannels, which truncated auriferous carbon seams early in the depositional history, are of widespread occurrence, and micro-synsedimentary faults offset carbon seams. The carbon seams are thus indigenous biogenic markers that grew contemporaneously with placer development. The various features highlighting the nature and spatial distribution of Witwatersrand carbon seams provide a classic case where field evidence trumps laboratory data in the reconstruction of geological processes.
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The Cradle of Humankind, also known as “The Home of our Ancestors”, was declaired a World Heritage Site WHS in December , in Morocco, because of its outstanding universal value, due to archaeological discoveries made within the 13 sites. It is a major tourist destination and attraction in South Africa. A World Heritage Site has to have exceptional universal value, and is protected and preserved against threats of changing social and economic conditionsa and natural decay.
Once a site has been selected, it is included on the World Heritage site list, and is protected for future generations, against threats of damage caused by natural and mechanical conditions. The Cradle of Humankind is unique in that since , there have been great scientific discoveries which have been a breakthrough in the search for the origins of humankind. Amongsst these, a 3,3 million year old ancestor of humankind was discovered.
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Warden established a British outpost in the then Transorangia. Among other reasons for the outpost was the danger posed by armed Khoe Korana and groups of mixed ancestry Griqua. According to one interpretation, the city takes its name from Jan Bloem II, the leader of a Griqua group. In about , the missionary Rev Burchell hired armed Griqua to protect BaThlaping living at Dithakong, about km northwest of Bloemfontein.
Literally, thousands of similar stonewalled settlements lie scattered across the highveld of the Free State. The oldest type of walling stands near the hill known as Ntsuanatsatsi, the legendary place of origin of BaFokeng see prehistory of Durban. Although Tswana-speaking now, new archaeological research indicates that the Fokeng moved up from northern KwaZulu-Natal and were originally Nguni speaking. An outer wall sometimes incorporates small stock enclosures because these animals are associated with women.
This type of walling first dates to the 15th century. Click on image to enlarge According to oral traditions, Tswana people from the west moved across the Vaal River, found BaFokeng at Ntsuanatsatsi, and assimilated them. Archaeologically, this interaction created another type of walling, called Type V, named after Vegkop near Heilbron.
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Thabela Thabang Mountain Retreat – Parys. Situated in between the mountains and the Vaal River, Thabela Thabang Mountain Retreat is a beautiful self-catering resort with no television so that you can truly get away from the noise, relax, rejuvenate and get back in touch with nature.
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Africa Paleolithic The Paleolithic of Africa is characterized by a variety of stone-tool assemblages, some of which represent purely local developments while others are practically identical with materials from corresponding horizons in Europe. Geological investigations of the Late Cenozoic deposits of this continent indicate that, as the result of fluctuations in rainfall, the Pleistocene Epoch throughout most of Africa can be subdivided on the basis of a succession of pluvial and interpluvial stages.
The pluvials, known as Kageran, Kamasian, Kanjeran, and Gamblian, are believed to represent the tropical and subtropical equivalents of the four major glacial stages of the Northern Hemisphere, but this has not yet been proved. The archaeological succession is well established in certain areas, although not in the continent as a whole. North Africa In this area, very crudely worked pebble tools have been reported from one site in Algeria in direct association with a Lower Pleistocene Villafranchian mammalian assemblage.
Throughout Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco , and the Sahara region, Lower Paleolithic hand axes of both Abbevillian and Acheulean type, together with flake tools, have been found in great numbers.
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The Northern Cape was one of three provinces made out of the Cape Province in , the others being Western Cape to the south and Eastern Cape to the southeast. Politically, it had been dominated since by the African National Congress (ANC). Ethnic issues are important in the politics of the Northern Cape.
South Africa has one of the longest sequences of human development in the world. It begins with two million years old hominid fossils. Human Origins South African scientists have been actively involved in the study of human origins since when Raymond Dart identified the Taung child as an infant halfway between apes and humans. Dart called the remains Australopithecus africanus, southern ape-man, and his work ultimately changed the focus of human evolution from Europe and Asia to Africa.
In many ways this discovery marked the birth of palaeoanthropology as a discipline. Today, we know that australopithecines represent the first human ancestors to walk upright, and they are only found in Africa. In South Africa, scientists usually find australopithecine remains in breccias in dolomite. The majority were found through lime mining activities near Johannesburg lime was used to process gold at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries , and most line mines here have exposed some breccias.
This dolomite band contains some of the best-known australopithecine sites in the world. Kromdraai, Swartkrans and Sterkfontein, for example, appear in every major textbook on human origins. Recently, a new find from the Cradle has made world headlines. Lee Berger and his team found the extraordinarily well-preserved remains of a juvenile male and adult female of a new species, Australopithecus sediba.
The hominids had fallen down a deep sink hole and were then covered by calcified sediment in an underground pool.
Acheulian settlement along the Lower Vaal river, South Africa
History[ edit ] The town of Villiers is named after Lourens de Villiers on whose farms the town was first built. The town was established at the Vaal River crossing on the very important transport route between Durban and Johannesburg. De Villiers started with the subdivision of his farms into erven in and the town was proclaimed by State President F. Reitz on 29 May Both Governments erected toll houses on the banks of the Vaal River at the Villiers wagon crossing points, at the site of the current steel bridge.
These toll houses remained in force until the creation of the Union of South Africa on 31 May
The stone tools of the Vaal gravels and other interior sites have provided South Africa with the majority of its Acheulean material or “Great Hand-axe Culture” as described by Van Riet Lowe ().
There is a flourishing of Oldowan tools in eastern Africa, spreading to southern Africa, between 2. Both technologies are occasionally found in the same areas, dating to the same time periods. This realisation required a rethinking of old cultural sequences in which the more “advanced” Acheulean was supposed to have succeeded the Oldowan. The different traditions may have been used by different species of hominins living in the same area, or multiple techniques may have been used by an individual species in response to different circumstances.
In China, only “Mode 1” Oldowan assemblages were produced, while in Indonesia stone tools from this age are unknown. The earliest Acheulean sites in Europe only appear around 0. In addition, the Acheulean tradition does not seem to spread to Eastern Asia. Other tool-making traditions seem to have supplanted Oldowon technologies by 0. Manufacture[ edit ] To obtain an Oldowan tool, a roughly spherical hammerstone is struck on the edge, or striking platform , of a suitable core rock to produce a conchoidal fracture with sharp edges useful for various purposes.
The process is often called lithic reduction.
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The following items can be found on the The Quartermaster’s Store website , with full descriptions, photographs and prices. These Beach groups were composed of specialist units of the Army, Navy, and R. The naval element was made up of R. Recovery Section and Pioneer Companies. Beach groups first operated in the landings in Sicily.
On 6th June , D Day, on the Normandy beaches beach-group troops landed with the assault troops and distinguished themselves in the establishment and maintenance of the beachhead. Both badges are in a nice issued and removed from uniform. Minor toning to silver finish. Worn in the Persian Gulf – Each is circa 5cm across.