Faith and Geology by Peter Wilders

These radioactive isotopes are unstable, decaying over time at a predictable rate. As the isotopes decay, they give off particles from their nucleus and become a different isotope. The parent isotope is the original unstable isotope, and daughter isotopes are the stable product of the decay. Half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of the parent isotopes to decay. The decay occurs on a logarithmic scale. For example, the half-life of C is 5, years. In the first 5, years, the organism will lose half of its C isotopes.

CC Dating fossils, dating strata

The 19 dating methods used to establish ancient dates, are not accurate. Here are scientific facts. Evolutionary theory is a myth.

Aug 06,  · Carbon dating is fraught with problems, however, and most of the researchers who date fossils date them according to the strata they are found in, or, more precisely, the layers they are found between, since sedimentary materials are not amenable to radiometric dating.

Radio dating fossils Oct To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. They are applied by geologists in the same sense that a “null hypothesis” is in statistics — not necessarily correct, just testable. In the last or more years of their application, they are valid, but geologists do not assume they are. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception.

In order for a layer of material to be deposited, something has to be beneath it to support it. It can’t float in mid-air, particularly if the material involved is sand, mud, or molten rock. The principle of superposition therefore has a clear implication for the age of a vertical succession of strata. Many other indicators are commonly present, including ones that can even tell you the angle of the depositional surface at the time “geopetal structures” , “assuming” that gravity was “down” at the time, which isn’t much of an assumption: In more complicated situations, like in a mountain belt, there are often faults, folds, and other structural complications that have deformed and “chopped up” the original stratigraphy.

The layers of rock are known as “strata”, and the study of their succession is known as “stratigraphy”.

What Is the Principle of Fossil Succession

Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.

To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging.

Sw science 10 unit 6 relative dating worksheet fossils and relative dating worksheet key name _____ student # _____ geologic time relative dating the law of superposition fossils and relative dating worksheet answers in any undisturbed sequence of strata, the oldest layer is at the bottom of the sequence, and the youngest layer is at.

Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.

Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of carbon is approximately 5, years. The short half-life of carbon means it cannot be used to date fossils that are allegedly extremely old, e. The question should be whether or not carbon can be used to date any artifacts at all? The answer is not simple. There are a few categories of artifacts that can be dated using carbon ; however, they cannot be more 50, years old.

Carbon cannot be used to date biological artifacts of organisms that did not get their carbon dioxide from the air.

Carbon, Radiometric Dating

Evolutionary theory is a myth. The truth is that God created everything; the evidence clearly points to it. Nothing else can explain the mountain of evidence. This is science vs. Some facts you should know Is Enough Evidence Available? Literally millions of fossils have been found and identified—yet all are distinct species Dating the Strata and Fossils:

1. the sedimentary strata having been accurately dated (strata are used to date the fossils) 2. the assumed generic relations between fossils of different species being correct 3. confirmation by radiometric dating of fossils.

These discoveries call into question the uniformitarian assumption that the geological rock strata were laid down over millions of years, one of the cornerstones of evolutionary thinking – rather they show that the strata could all have been laid down very quickly at the same time. The fossils found in these rocks thus provide evidence for a world-wide cataclysm – the Flood of Noah – rather than support for evolution.

Unbelievably for many, the link between geology and the decline of the Faith is direct and disastrous. For over a century geology has stated that the rocks are positive proof of millions of years between the appearance of man and the era of Abraham. Until the beginning of the twentieth century Old Testament Jews and New Testament Christians were all agreed that about two thousand years separated Adam from Abraham. As predicted by nineteenth century geologist Charles Lyell, attacking the Mosaic geology of the Genesis Flood, was a more effective way of bringing into doubt biblical inerrancy than any theological argument.

Not only Noah’s Flood but all the Creation account and Adam’s sin, held by Hebrew scholars and the entire tradition of the Church to be historical, were discredited by the ‘new’ geology. They were rejected as history and reinterpreted as allegory.


Bacterial sulfate reduction BSR. It is also a well known deposit in China. The large scale of the mineralization and especially the huge volume of H2S that was required to precipitate the Zn-Pb sulfide are of great interest to ore geologists. Ore microscopy shows microbial structures such as framboidal sphalerite, spherical aggregates of galena-sphalerite, oolite sphalerite, dendritic colloidal sphalerite-pyrite, metacolloidal sphalerite-pyrite, multinuclear-metacolloidalring-like sphalerite-pyrite, botryoidal sphalerite-pyrite, framboidal pyrite and bacterial plate-like of galena-sphalerite.

Detailed observations and analyses of the microbial structures at micron to nanometer scales by field emission scanning electron microscopy FESEM and energy dispersive spectrometry EDS reveal that the bacteria fossils are composed of sphalerite, galena or pyrite or of multiple sulfide minerals with calcite and that they are distributed in bacterial colonies in the ore.

Many strata are not dated from fossils. Relative dates of strata (whether layers are older or younger than others) are determined mainly by which strata are above others. Some strata are dated absolutely via radiometric dating. These methods are sufficient to determine a great deal of stratigraphy.

Thank you for your response. My question to you was: No, of course not. Therefore, when you admit that you could be wrong about everything you claim to know, you have given up appeals to knowledge. And yet, following that admission, you make countless subsequent knowledge claims which cannot be accounted for according to your worldview. You cannot demonstrate from your worldview that certainty is impossible. How do you justify this claim? Attempting to prove the impossibility of anything leads you down the philosophical path known as an infinite regress which is without a firm conclusion.

You could no more prove the impossibility of something than you could prove the extinction of something unless you were everywhere at all times. In order to say that something is impossible, you must first appeal to an absolute standard of what IS possible in order to know that the proposition in question remains outside the realm of possibility. Therefore, without an absolute standard of possibilities, how do you justify this claim?

To say that it is certain that there is no certainty is a self-refutation. Are you certain that there is no certainty? We, as humans, can believe things which are not true, but we could not KNOW something that was not true.


Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages. Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a fossil by using radiometric dating to measure the decay of isotopes, either within the fossil or more often the rocks associated with it. The majority of the time fossils are dated using relative dating techniques.

Using relative dating the fossil is compared to something for which an age is already known. The Wheeler Formation has been previously dated to approximately million year old, so we know the trilobite is also about million years old. Index fossils are fossils that are known to only occur within a very specific age range.

The sequence of strata — which layer is on top of which. This allows the story to be told sequentially as a series of changes, some gradual, some abrupt. The structural arrangement of the layers — how the strata are affected by folds, faults, or igneous intrusions.

The complex of data recorded in fossils worldwide—known as the fossil record —is the primary source of information about the history of life on Earth. Smilodon; sabre-toothed tigerA discussion of California fossils—notably those of sabre-toothed tigers and the Smilodon—in the University of California Museum of Paleontology’s collection on the Berkeley campus. Displayed by permission of The Regents of the University of California.

Only a small fraction of ancient organisms are preserved as fossils, and usually only organisms that have a solid and resistant skeleton are readily preserved. Most major groups of invertebrate animals have a calcareous skeleton or shell e. Other forms have shells of calcium phosphate which also occurs in the bones of vertebrates , or silicon dioxide. A shell or bone that is buried quickly after deposition may retain these organic tissues, though they become petrified converted to a stony substance over time.

Unaltered hard parts, such as the shells of clams or brachiopods, are relatively common in sedimentary rocks , some of great age. Dinosaur fossils found in Alberta, Canada. Solutions may fill the interstices, or pores, of the shell or bone with calcium carbonate or other mineral salts and thus fossilize the remains, in a process known as permineralization.

Reading rock strata – Fossil formation